'Intellectual disability means a significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex information and to learn and apply new skills (impaired intelligence). This results in a reduced ability to cope independently (impaired social functioning), and begins before adulthood, with a lasting effect on development.' Definition: WHO.
Intellectual disability is subdivided into syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms are present, and non-syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits appear without other abnormalities. Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome are examples of syndromic intellectual disabilities. WIkipedia.
According to the World Health Organisation, people with intellectual disabilities do not receive adequate and quality services, which is reportedly partly due to stigma and discrimination as well as the insufficient level of implementation of policies, often with inadequate financial and human resources.
Source : WHO/Europe and iConference of States Parties to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (14-16 June 2016), Ninth session, New York. Item 5 (c) of the provisional agenda 'Matters related to the implementation of the Convention: round table 2'.
Mental disability may refer to:
- Developmental disability, a chronic condition due to mental or physical impairments arising before adulthood
- Disabilities affecting intellectual abilities, medical conditions affecting cognitive ability including:
- Mental disorder, also called mental illness or psychiatric disorder, a behavioral or mental pattern that causes impairment of personal functioning
- Neurodevelopmental disorder, a disorder of brain function
- Emotional and behavioral disorders, a disability classification used in educational settings
The term general learning disability is now used in the UK instead of terms such as mental handicap or mental retardation. The degree of disability can vary significantly, being classified as mild, moderate, severe or profound.